Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety, to assess sociodemographic and clinical determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms, and to identify factors that impact antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in people living with HIV (PLWH).
Methods: The study was conducted at a third-level hospital. Many assessment tools have been used to collect data among PLWH, including the Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Form, Mini-Mental Test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
Results: 56% of HIV-positive individuals were diagnosed with depression and 37% with anxiety disorder. Differences in terms of monthly income (HADdepression scale, χ2=6.037, p=0.028), smoking status (HAD-anxiety scale, χ2=8.104, p=0.009), and substance abuse (both HAD-depression and HAD-anxiety scales; χ2=14.367, p<0.000, and χ2=18.641, p<0.001, respectively) were found. There were significant associations between anxiety and current smoking [Odds ratio (OR)=5.46-95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-16.88; p=0.03], as well as between depression and low monthly income [OR=3.77, (95% CI: 1.26-11.26; p=0.018)] and having a single-status (OR=2.68; 95% CI: 1.05-6.86; p=0.04). Individuals with an HIV positivity duration of less than 3 years, the adherence to therapy was lower (OR=9.71; 95% CI: 1.14-82.99; p=0.038).
Conclusion: This is the first study from Turkey using HADS and CES-D scales to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWH. Significant differences were noted between HAD-D and CES-D scales in terms of a diagnosis of depression. Regression analysis showed associations between current smoking and anxiety, between depression and low income and single-status, and between low ART adherence and HIV positivity duration of less than 3 years. Regular follow-up of HIV-positive individuals, especially in terms of depression diagnoses, is of great importance.